Ich (ick or “white spot”)

1.1.11. Ich

Fish in a newly set up aquarium often get little white spots all over their bodies. This is a disease called “ich” or “white spots”. Treating ich is very easy.

Plants and the New Hobbyist

1.1.10. Plants and the New Hobbyist

The author does not want to discourage newcomers to the hobby. But when it comes to plants there simply is a problem. Plants are not as easy as everyone says they are. Newcomers to the hobby should skip the plants

“Brown Algae” in an Aquarium

1.1.9. “Brown Algae”

Brown Algae: If you are a newcomer to the hobby just accept the fact that brown algae will form in the aquarium and just leave it be in the aquarium. Do NOT try and fight the brown algae. It is a war the algae will win.


1.1.7. Aeration of the Aquarium

Aeration One of the five keys to any healthy aquarium is aeration. In an aquarium with even moderate amounts of fish, aeration is essential for healthy fish. The aeration not only keeps the fish healthy, but it also keeps the beneficial bacterial populations healthy. Aeration can be accomplished either by lots of air bubbles from […]


1.1.6. Filter media for an aquarium

Filter media is the stuff inside a filter. It is something that grows beneficial bacteria on its surface These beneficial bacteria remove fish pee (ammonia) from the water. Filter media is important to the health of the fish.

Filter types

1.1.5. Filters

Aquarium filters: Any discussion of ANY filter requires a disclaimer. ALL commercial filters almost without exception tell the owner to replace the filter media (cartridges, sponge, ceramic rings, carbon, Matrix, etc.) regularly, once a month, once every three months, or once every six months. Replacing the Filter Media is a Big SCAM!!!

Cloudy Water in the Aquarium

6.2.3. Cloudy Water

Cloudy Water in the Aquarium: Many people have their water turn cloudy, often looking like someone poured milk into the aquarium. Another term for this is a “bacterial bloom”.

Aquarium Brown Gunk

6.2.2. Brown Gunk

The “brown gunk” found in aquarium filters is all a type of aggregate called a “biofilm”; a matrix or gel of polysaccharides and proteins with bacteria, protozoans, fungi and water molds. 

Detritus and Mulm in an Aquarium

6.2.1. Detritus Explained

In the eyes of most hobbyists “detritus” is any “brown gunk” in an aquarium. Other words used to describe this material is mulm, organic matter, sludge and debris.


6.2. Biofiltration

The most important part of an aquarium’s filtration is what goes on at the microscopic level. This is so called biofiltration. It is the world of bacteria and micro-organisms that can’t be seen with the naked eye. This biofiltration is the key to good water chemistry, good fish health and crystal-clear water.