Channa in general
Channa, commonly known as Snakeheads, are primitive predatory fish and members of the family Channidae. They are a group of perciform (perch-like) fishes whose affinities are unknown, although recent studies on the molecular phylogeny of bony fishes consider snakeheads as most closely related to the labyrinth fishes (anabantoids) and the synbranchiform eels, which include the spiny eels.
The genus Channa contains 31 species that are native throughout Asia from are native from
southeastern Iran and eastern Afghanistan eastward through Pakistan, India, southern
Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra, Indonesia,
Vietnam, Korea, and China northward into Siberia.
3 species of the closely related genera Parachanna are native to parts of Africa.
The different species of Channa vary in size considerably. The term dwarf snakeheads is coined by aquarists to describe a group of Channa species growing only 25 centimeters: Channa bleheri, Channa cachua, Channa orientalis and Channa andrao. These species are most suitable for keeping in an aquarium because of their size and their relative docile temperament.
Most of the species grow to a maximum length of 30-90 centimeters. Besides size, this intermediate category contains the most diversity in behaviour since some of the species are closer related to the dwarf species, and some relate more to the category of monsterfish.
5 species (A. argus. C. barca, C. marulius, C. micropeltes and C. striata) can even grow up to 100 cm or even larger and can be considered monsterfish that are barely suitable for aquaria.
Fossiles dated from 50 million years ago indicate an origin in the southern Himalayas (India and East Pakistan). From 15 million years ago end on, the animals have spread by the expanding intertropical climate zone to parts of Europe, Africa and larger parts of Asia.
Channa have an elongated body and are distinguished by their long dorsal fins large mouths full of teeth. They earn their common name Snakehead because their flattened shape and the scales on their heads that are reminiscent of the large epidermal scales on snakes.
Channa have gills to breath water like most other fish. However subadults and adults can also breath air to supplement their demand for oxygen. Snakeheads are in fact obligatory air breathers and must have air from the surface otherwise they will drown. Unlike many other airbreathing fishes, channa have a series of cavities in the rear section of their head. These suprabranchial chambers are filled with folded tissues that have a high surface area, and allow oxygen change to occur directly between air and their blood. Unlike mammals they lack a diaphragm, and use water to exchange old air with fresh air each time they take a breath. Thus, their ability to breathe air when out of the water is limited. They appear to breathe air more frequently when swimming actively.
The genera Parachanna (native to parts of Africa) is described apart from the genera Channa because of a more primitive implementation of the airbreathing section.
Snakeheads are known to migrate over short distances over land to find other waterbassins, using the ability to breath air. When moving over land they curve their body in an S shape first, before launching themselves forward by a powerful stretch. In high humidity conditions Channa are able to survive from 2 up to 4 days out of the water. When placed in direct sunlight, however, they desiccate and perish in minutes to several hours. In contrary to what is believed, Snakeheads are not known to leave the water for any reason other than making their way back to water after flooding. The only true Snakeheads to actively leave the water are some of the smaller species, C. gachua and C. orientalis, C. asiatica, and C. amphibeus, and still there must be an obvious reason for change.
Snakeheads can live in varying waterconditions. Some species are bound to a subtropical climatezone. For good health these species require cooler watertemperatures., at least for a seasonal period. Most snakeheads can tolerate a very large range of waterparameters (temperature, PH, GH, level oxygen). However, they are very vulnerable in case of sudden changes.
Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. While they grow the larger species switch towards a menu that consists mainly on fish, frogs, crabs, shrimps, small aquatic mammals and birds.
Before adulthood most Channa species hunt in groups. When becoming sexually mature they start a solitary life and develop a high level of aggression against their own species and other fish. When a couple has formed most species do not tolerate other fish.
Channa are not active swimmers and, when not feeding, tend to move only when surfacing for air. They spend a lot of time hovering in midwater or resting on the bottom within cover as ambush predators. Some larges snakeheads however live a more pelagic life and are far more active swimmers. All snakeheads are capable of powerful bursts of acceleration. They curve their body in a S-shape and launch themselves forward by stretching.
Parental care is behavioural characteristic of Snakeheads. Both parents protect and guard their young vigorously. The majority of the species guard their eggs at the surface of the water. Some of the smaller species are mouthbrooder. Only some species are holebrooders.
Amongst specialist aquarists Channa is a popular -oddball- aquariumfish. Snakeheads are elegant, alert, clever, restful and powerful fish, with lots of personality. Their communication with conspecifics their hunting skills and breeding behaviour are fascinating. Some aquarist even specialize themselves by dedicating their large fishtank to the largest specimens. Sometimes they maintain a pet-like connection with their monsterfish. Some rare and attractively marked species (like C. Barca) belong to the most expensive aquarium fish in the trade.
Some Snakeheads display considerable changes in colour pattern while growing. In the early days of classification of fish species this formed a lot confusion since in that days colour was still considered a criterium for classification.
Besides some dwarf species, many juveniles are more attractively marked than adults. With age species often develop a browner, more drab look. Because of this phenomena some aquarists lose interest in the fish while it grows. Those considering their first purchase should be well aware of what they are getting into.
Because of its predatory nature none of the Snakeheads are a suitable choice for a community tank. Most of the species will quickly empty a general community tank with smaller fish. Thus a dedicated aquarium is required for keeping snakeheads.
Aquarists have very diverse experiences when it comes to combining Channa species with other robust fish species. In general, most species are probably best kept alone. The level of tolerance towards other fish varies per species, but also seem to vary per specimen or specific situation. Combining Channa with other aggressive and territorial fish species, like members of the Cichlidae family is a strategy that does not work out well. A Channa that is intimidated will hide, try to escape the tank and refuse to eat.
Because of their size and relatively mild temperament most of the dwarf species can be combined with fish from 2/3 of their own length, as long their tank mates are not overly aggressive. Keep in mind that most of the members of the dwarf species are native to areas with varying water conditions, depending on the season. A seasonal drop of water temperature is required too maintain good health.
Medium sizes species
Many medium sized channa (30-60 cm) should be combined with relatively fast swimming and robust fish, like larger cyprinids. The general opinion is that changes are best if the Snakeheads are not fully grown and the other fish are already settled. Newly introduced fish are often killed, even when they do not fit their mouth. Mostly however, the co-existence is temporarely: When a couple is formed often all other fish are hunted and killed.
Large species (60 – 130 cm)
These species require a lot of space. Most private aquarium setup’s are just large enough to host only 1 or 2 adults. Young species often can tolerate conspecifics ans other robust fish very well. Newly introduced fish are often ripped apart instantly. Adultfish (especially formed couples) develop the maximum level of aggression. Most of the time they are last fish standing in an aquarium set-up.
Channa bleheri grows maximum 25 cm and is one of the smaller Channa species. It has an attractive colour pattern and is generally very peaceful towards the same species and other (robust) fish. They can be kept in a group very well.
Young specimens have yellow colour with a dark stripe all over the head, from the jaws to the eyes. This colouration changes slowly into a painted colourscheme that features the adults. Many regional variations are known. Adults have brownish basecolour, often with blue sides and fins, covered with bright orange of red spots.
Channa bleheri stands out from other dwarf Snakeheads by the lack of the pelvic fin.
Males have brighter colours and are bigger. Also they grow faster as females.
Channa bleheri is endemic to the Brahmaputra rivier, northeast India (Assam region). It lives together with other species C. andrao and C. aurantimaculata) in a hostile micro ecosysteem consisting of tropical forest and a strong monsoon. Water temperatures drop considerably in the dry winter and increase to tropical values in summer. Since Channa bleheri is bound to a small and specific habitat, with a low density of fish, these species is considered endangered.
Channa bleheri can be kept as a couple or in a group. In case of a group some more space is required with some shelter for levelling the territorial confrontations that can occur. These fightings will never get serious.
In contrary to most Snakeheads, Channa bleheri dugs a hole for the eggs. Courting is initiated by the female, while the males chooses the spot. Both parents show parental care.
Channa bleheri can stand a variety of watertemperatures and water parameters. However, in case of enduring tropical watertemperatures the fish will fade and finally suffer from (lethal) bacterial infection. Therefore keep Channa bleheri in summer with a temperature between 22-28 degrees C and drop temperature as low as 16-16 degrees C in winter. Depending in geographic location it is possible to turn the seasons and keep the fish outside in a pond during summermonths and inside in winter.
Despite the ability to withstand an extreme range of temperatures and waterparameters, snakeheads a very vulnerable when exposed to sudden changes, especially changes in pH value. Be careful to acclimate new introduction in the aquarium and while doing regular water changes.
An dim-lighted aquarium with dense planted area, open swimming places and with a lot of place to shelter. Use a tightly fitting hood since Channa species are true escape artists. A gap between the waters surface and the hood is needed since they need to breath from the surface
Keep the temperature in summer at a maximum of 22-24 degrees C. In winter season the subtropical variations do require a drop in temperature to 16-18 degrees C. In this period less food is required. A cool period is necessary for good health: maintaining a high temperature often leads to general weakness and (lethal) bacterial infections.
Carnivorous. All kind of living fishfood is accepted like artemia, bloodworm, mosquito larvae, shrimps, insects, snails and especially earthworm. Often, (pieces of) fish are refused. Frozen and dried pallets are accepted.
In order to initiate breeding, the water temperature should be lowered. Combining a male and a female will not automatically result in a couple. To form a couple best is to start with a group of 5-5 specimens. Remove the other specimens as they later pose a threat to the nest. Make a cave in which the nest can be made.The eggs float after laying first to the surface where they form a kind of carpet. Then they are taken to the cave by the parents where they keep floating on the ceiling. The parents take care of the eggs and the young fish. After about 30 hours the eggs will come out. They can be fed directly with artemia. After that, it can quickly be switched to frozen or dried food. The young fish are fed by the parents with unfermented eggs. Youngsters that are separated from the parents grows slower. Beware of other fish in the aquarium. Fish which the bowl is shared is often not considered a threat by Channa bleheri and can easily get in the position to feed on the young.
Patrick de Pijper