The genus Acaronia is limited to two species. Steindacher founded this genus in 1875 as Acaropsis. Because this name was already in use, it was renamed Acaronia by Meyers in 1940. The name Acaronia is derived from the word Acara which means cichlids in the local Tupi language.
The two species are:
You can find Acaronia in the north of South America. They inhabit the Amazon River Basin, Rio Negro, Rio Branco Rio Oyapock, Rio Essequibo, Rio Orinoco and connected rivers.